Thursday July 8, 2021’s Smile of the Day: U.F.O.’s
On this Day:
In 1947, reports were broadcast that a UFO had crash landed in Roswell, New Mexico.
The Roswell incident is the July 1947 crash of a United States Army Air Forces balloon at a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico, and the subsequent conspiracy theories that claim the crash was that of a flying saucer and that the truth was covered up by the United States government. On July 8, 1947, Roswell Army Air Field issued a press release stating that they had recovered a “flying disc” from a ranch near Roswell. The Army quickly retracted the statement and said instead that the crashed object was a conventional weather balloon.
The Roswell incident didn’t surface again until the late 1970s, when a retired lieutenant colonel, in an interview with a UFO researcher, said that the weather balloon account had been a cover-story. Ufologists began promoting a variety of increasingly elaborate conspiracy theories, claiming that one or more alien spacecraft had crash-landed and that the extraterrestrial occupants had been recovered by the military, which then engaged in a cover-up.
In 1994, the United States Air Force published a report identifying the crashed object as a nuclear test surveillance balloon from Project Mogul. A second Air Force report, published in 1997, concluded that stories of “aliens bodies” probably stemmed from test dummies’ being dropped from high altitude.
Nevertheless, conspiracy theories about the event persist, and the Roswell incident continues to be of interest in popular media. The incident has been described as “the world’s most famous, most exhaustively investigated, and most thoroughly debunked UFO claim”.
The Roswell incident occurred amid the flying saucer craze of 1947. On June 26, media nationwide had reported civilian pilot Kenneth Arnold’s story of seeing what he labelled “Flying Saucers”. Historians would later chronicle over 800 “copycat” sightings that were reported after the Arnold story was published.
The sequence of events was triggered in late June or early July 1947, when William “Mac” Brazel, a ranch foreman, noticed clusters of debris on the Foster ranch, which was about 30 miles (50 km) outside of Roswell. Initial press coverage suggested Brazel first noticed the material in early July, though later reports suggested a June date for the discovery of debris.
Discovery reported to authorities (July 6)
On or around July 6, Brazel reported the discovery to Sheriff George Wilcox in Roswell. Wilcox, in turn, called RAAF intelligence officer Major Jesse Marcel, who assembled a detail to visit the Foster ranch. Around 4 PM that afternoon, Brazel left Roswell, followed by Marcel, Lt Colonel Sheridan Cavitt and Master Sergeant Bill Rickett.
The following morning, presumably July 7, the Army Air Force detail inspected the debris on the Foster ranch and transported some or all of it back to Roswell.
On July 8, 1947, RAAF public information officer Walter Haut issued a press release stating that personnel from the field’s 509th Operations Group had recovered a “flying disc”, which had landed on a ranch near Roswell. The report was immediately picked up by numerous news outlets:
The many rumors regarding the flying disc became a reality yesterday when the intelligence office of the 509th Bomb group of the Eighth Air Force, Roswell Army Air Field, was fortunate enough to gain possession of a disc through the cooperation of one of the local ranchers and the sheriff’s office of Chaves County.
The flying object landed on a ranch near Roswell sometime last week. Not having phone facilities, the rancher stored the disc until such time as he was able to contact the sheriff’s office, who in turn notified Maj. Jesse A. Marcel of the 509th Bomb Group Intelligence Office.
Action was immediately taken and the disc was picked up at the rancher’s home. It was inspected at the Roswell Army Air Field and subsequently loaned by Major Marcel to higher headquarters.
Researcher Kendrick Frazier notes: “The idea of alien spacecraft hadn’t gained hold yet. At best the concern was that if they were physical craft at all, they might be Soviet or even holdover Nazi aircraft.”
Colonel William H. Blanchard, commanding officer of the 509th, contacted General Roger M. Ramey of the Eighth Air Force in Fort Worth, Texas, and Ramey ordered the object be flown to Fort Worth Army Air Field. At the base, Warrant Officer Irving Newton confirmed Ramey’s preliminary opinion, identifying the object as being a weather balloon and its “kite”, a nickname for a radar reflector used to track the balloons from the ground.
A telex sent to a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) office from the Fort Worth, Texas, office quoted a Major from the Eighth Air Force (also based in Fort Worth at Carswell Air Force Base) on July 8, 1947, as saying that “The disc is hexagonal in shape and was suspended from a ballon [sic] by cable, which ballon [sic] was approximately twenty feet (6 m) in diameter. Major Curtan further advices advises [sic] that the object found resembles a high altitude weather balloon with a radar reflector, but that telephonic conversation between their office and Wright field had not [UNINTELLIGIBLE] borne out this belief.”
On July 9, the press reported that General Ramey had stated that a weather balloon was recovered by the RAAF personnel. A press conference was held, featuring debris (foil, rubber and wood) said to be from the crashed object, which matched the weather balloon description. Historian Robert Goldberg wrote that the intended effect was achieved: “the story died the next day”.
As described in the July 9, 1947, edition of the Roswell Daily Record:
The balloon which held it up, if that was how it worked, must have been 12 feet [3.5 m] long, [Brazel] felt, measuring the distance by the size of the room in which he sat. The rubber was smoky gray in color and scattered over an area about 200 yards [180 m] in diameter. When the debris was gathered up, the tinfoil, paper, tape, and sticks made a bundle about three feet [1 m] long and 7 or 8 inches [18 or 20 cm] thick, while the rubber made a bundle about 18 or 20 inches [45 or 50 cm] long and about 8 inches [20 cm] thick. In all, he estimated, the entire lot would have weighed maybe five pounds [2 kg]. There was no sign of any metal in the area which might have been used for an engine, and no sign of any propellers of any kind, although at least one paper fin had been glued onto some of the tinfoil. There were no words to be found anywhere on the instrument, although there were letters on some of the parts. Considerable Scotch tape and some tape with flowers printed upon it had been used in the construction. No strings or wires were to be found but there were some eyelets in the paper to indicate that some sort of attachment may have been used.
On July 9, Brazel told the Roswell Daily Record that the debris consisted of “large area of bright wreckage made up of rubber strips, tinfoil, a rather tough paper and sticks.” He paid little attention to it but returned later with his wife and daughter to gather up some of the debris. Some accounts have described Brazel as having gathered some of the material earlier, rolling it together and stashing it under some brush.
On July 9, Marcel explained: “[We] spent a couple of hours Monday afternoon [July 7] looking for any more parts of the weather device”, said Marcel. “We found a few more patches of tinfoil and rubber.” That day it was reported that Brazel had reported the debris after hearing reports about “flying discs” and wondering if that was what he had picked up, then going to see Sheriff Wilcox where he “whispered kinda confidential like” that he may have found a flying disc.
After the initial newspaper reports of 1947, the Roswell incident faded from public attention for more than 30 years, when interest re-emerged in the late 1970s. The Roswell incident was featured in films, TV shows, and books. Amid increasingly complex conspiracy theories, multiple hoaxes and legends about “alien bodies” were incorporated into the Roswell mythos. The trend culminated in 1995’s purported footage of an “Alien Autopsy”, which filmmakers later revealed to be a hoax (though they preferred the term “reconstruction”).
In February 1978, UFO researcher Stanton Friedman interviewed Jesse Marcel, the only person known to have accompanied the Roswell debris from where it was recovered to Fort Worth where reporters saw material that was claimed to be part of the recovered object.
In November 1979, Marcel’s first filmed interview was featured in a documentary titled “UFO’s Are Real”, co-written by Friedman. The film had a limited release but was later syndicated for broadcasting. On February 28, 1980, sensationalist tabloid The National Enquirer brought large-scale attention to the Marcel story. On September 20, 1980, the TV series In Search of… aired an interview where Marcel described his participation in the 1947 press conference:
“They wanted some comments from me, but I wasn’t at liberty to do that. So, all I could do is keep my mouth shut. And General Ramey is the one who discussed – told the newspapers, I mean the newsman, what it was, and to forget about it. It is nothing more than a weather observation balloon. Of course, we both knew differently.”
The accounts given by Friedman and others in the following years elevated Roswell from a forgotten incident to perhaps the most famous UFO case of all time. Marcel gave a final interview to HBO’s America Undercover which aired in August 1985. In all his statements, Marcel consistently denied the presence of bodies. Between 1978 and the early 1990s, UFO researchers such as Stanton T. Friedman, William Moore, Karl T. Pflock, and the team of Kevin D. Randle and Donald R. Schmitt interviewed several hundred people who claimed to have had a connection with the events at Roswell in 1947. Their conclusions were that at least one alien spacecraft crashed near Roswell and a government cover-up of the incident had taken place.
The 1980 publication of “The Roswell Incident” included more witnesses to debris marked the first time stories of “alien bodies” were associated with Roswell.
In October 1980, Marcel’s story was featured in the book The Roswell Incident by Charles Berlitz and William Moore. The authors had previously written popular books on such fringe topics as the Philadelphia Experiment and on the Bermuda Triangle. Though he was uncredited, Friedman carried out some research for the book.
The book’s narrative holds that an alien craft was flying over the New Mexico desert observing US nuclear weapons activity, but crashed after being hit by lightning, killing the aliens on board; a government cover-up duly followed. Historian Kathy Olmsted writes that the book’s narrative has come to be known as “version 1” of the Roswell myth. Berlitz and Moore’s narrative was dominant until the late 1980s when other authors, attracted by the commercial potential of writing about Roswell, started producing rival accounts.
The Roswell Incident featured accounts of debris described by Marcel as “nothing made on this earth.” Additional accounts by Bill Brazel, son of rancher Mac Brazel, neighbor Floyd Proctor and Walt Whitman Jr., son of newsman W. E. Whitman, who had interviewed Mac Brazel, suggested the material Marcel recovered had super-strength not associated with a weather balloon.
The book introduced the contention that debris which was recovered by Marcel at the Foster ranch, visible in photographs showing Marcel posing with the debris, was substituted for debris from a weather device as part of a cover-up. The book also claimed that the debris recovered from the ranch was not permitted a close inspection by the press. The efforts by the military were described as being intended to discredit and “counteract the growing hysteria towards flying saucers”. Two accounts of witness intimidation were included in the book, including the incarceration of Mac Brazel.
The authors claimed to have interviewed over 90 witnesses, though the testimony of only 25 appears in the book. Only seven of these people claimed to have seen the debris. Of these, five claimed to have handled it.
In 1947, officers from Roswell Army Air Field investigated a debris field near Corona. By the 1980s, popular accounts conflated the debris investigation with two separate myths of humanoid bodies over 300 miles away from Roswell.
The Roswell Incident (1980) was the first book to introduce the controversial second-hand stories of civil engineer Grady “Barney” Barnett and a group of archaeology students from an unidentified university encountering wreckage and “alien bodies” while on the Plains of San Agustin before being escorted away by the Army. The second-hand Barnett stories were described by ufologists as the “one aspect of the account that seemed to conflict with the basic story about the retrieval of highly unusual debris from a sheep ranch outside Corona, New Mexico, in July 1947”.
Many alleged first-hand accounts of the Roswell incident actually contain information from the Aztec, New Mexico, UFO incident, a hoaxed flying saucer crash which gained national notoriety after being promoted by journalist Frank Scully in his articles and a 1950 book Behind the Flying Saucers. The hoax included stories of humanoid bodies and metals with unusual properties.
In 1991, Kevin Randle and Donald Schmitt published UFO Crash at Roswell. They added testimony from 100 new witnesses, including those who reported an elaborate military cordon and debris recovery operation at the Foster ranch. The book included the new claims of a “gouge … that extended four or five hundred feet [120 or 150 m]” at the ranch.
Randle and Schmitt reported Gen. Arthur Exon had been directly aware of debris and bodies, but Exon disputed his depiction, saying his comments had been based exclusively on second-hand rumors. The 1991 book sold 160,000 copies and served as the basis for the 1994 television film Roswell. Also in 1991, retired USAF Brigadier General Thomas DuBose, who had posed with debris for press photographs in 1947, publicly acknowledged the weather balloon cover story, corroborating Marcel’s previous admissions.
The Barnett “alien body” accounts were mentioned in the 1991 book, though the dates and locations were changed from the accounts found in 1980’s The Roswell Incident. In this new account, Brazel was described as leading the Army to a second crash site on the ranch, at which point the Army personnel were supposedly “horrified to find civilians [including Barnett] there already.”
UFO Crash at Roswell (1991) prominently featured the stories of mortician Glenn Dennis. On September 20, 1989, an episode of Unsolved Mysteries had included second-hand stories of “Barney” Barnett seeing alien bodies captured by the Army. Mortician Dennis had called the show’s hotline claiming to have knowledge of the events. Dennis claimed to have received “four or five calls” from Air Base with questions about body preservation and inquiries about small or hermetically-sealed caskets; he further claimed that a local nurse told him she had witnessed an “alien autopsy”. Dennis’s stories of Roswell alien autopsies were the first account to allege alien corpses at the Roswell Army Air Base. Pflock observed that Dennis’s story “sounds like a B-grade thriller conceived by Oliver Stone.”
In September 1991, Dennis co-founded a UFO museum in Roswell along with former RAAF public affairs officer Walter Haut and Max Littell, a real estate salesman. Dennis appeared in multiple documentaries repeating his story.
Randle deemed Glenn Dennis one of the “least credible” Roswell witnesses. Randle said Dennis was not credible “for changing the name of the nurse once we had proved she didn’t exist.” Scientific skeptic author Brian Dunning concurs that Dennis cannot be regarded as a reliable witness, considering that he had seemingly waited over 40 years before he started recounting a series of unconnected events. Such events, Dunnings argues, were then arbitrarily joined together to form what has become the most popular narrative of the alleged alien crash. Some prominent UFOlogists including Karl T. Pflock, Kent Jeffrey, and William L. Moore have become convinced that there were no aliens or alien spacecraft involved in the Roswell crash.
In 1992, Stanton Friedman released Crash at Corona, co-authored with Don Berliner. The book introduced new “witnesses” and added to the narrative by doubling the number of flying saucers to two, and the number of aliens to eight – two of which were said to have survived and been taken into custody by the government. In 1994, Randle and Schmitt authored another book, The Truth about the UFO Crash at Roswell which included a claim that alien bodies were taken by cargo plane to be viewed by Dwight D. Eisenhower.
The existence of so many differing accounts led to a schism among ufologists about the events at Roswell. The Center for UFO Studies (CUFOS) and the Mutual UFO Network (MUFON), two leading UFO societies, disagreed in their views of the various scenarios presented by Randle–Schmitt and Friedman–Berliner; several conferences were held to try to resolve the differences. One issue under discussion was where Barnett was when he saw the alien craft he was said to have encountered. A 1992 UFO conference attempted to achieve a consensus among the various scenarios portrayed in Crash at Corona and UFO Crash at Roswell; however, the publication of The Truth About the UFO Crash at Roswell “resolved” the Barnett problem by simply ignoring Barnett and citing a new location for the alien craft recovery, including a new group of archaeologists not connected to the ones the Barnett story cited.
In 1997, the US Government released a report concluding that the Roswell Incident stemmed from a Project MOGUL balloon and anthropomorphic test dummies.
After United States congressional inquiries, the General Accounting Office launched an inquiry and directed the Office of the United States Secretary of the Air Force to conduct an internal investigation. The result was summarized in two reports. The first, released in 1994, concluded that the material recovered in 1947 was likely debris from Project Mogul, a military surveillance program employing high-altitude balloons (and classified portion of an unclassified New York University project by atmospheric researchers). The second report, released in 1997, concluded that reports of recovered alien bodies were likely a combination of innocently transformed memories of accidents involving military casualties with memories of the recovery of anthropomorphic dummies in military programs such as the 1950s Operation High Dive, mixed with hoaxes perpetrated by various witnesses and UFO proponents. The psychological effects of time compression and confusion about when events occurred explained the discrepancy with the years in question.
By the 1990s, a scholarly consensus emerged concluding that the military decided to conceal the true purpose of the crashed device—nuclear test monitoring—and instead inform the public that the crash was of a weather balloon. The balloon had been launched from Alamogordo Army Air Field a month earlier. It carried a radar reflector and classified Project Mogul sensors for experimental monitoring of Soviet nuclear testing.
The Air Force reports were dismissed by UFO proponents as being either disinformation or simply implausible, though skeptical researchers such as Philip J. Klass and Robert Todd, who had been expressing doubts regarding accounts of aliens for several years, used the reports as the basis for skeptical responses to claims by UFO proponents. After the release of the Air Force reports, several books, such as Kal Korff’s The Roswell UFO Crash: What They Don’t Want You To Know (1997), built on the evidence presented in the reports to conclude “there is no credible evidence that the remains of an extraterrestrial spacecraft was [sic] involved.”
In 1995, film footage purporting to show an alien autopsy and claimed to have been taken by a US military official shortly after the Roswell incident was released by Ray Santilli, a London-based video entrepreneur. The footage caused an international sensation when it aired on television networks around the world. Santilli admitted in 2006 that the film was mostly a reconstruction, but continued to claim it was based on genuine footage now lost, and some original frames that had supposedly survived. A fictionalized version of the creation of the footage and its release was retold in the comedy film Alien Autopsy (2006).
Although there is no evidence that a UFO crashed at Roswell, believers firmly hold to the belief that one did, and that the truth has been concealed as a result of a government conspiracy. B. D. Gildenberg has called the Roswell incident “the world’s most famous, most exhaustively investigated, and most thoroughly debunked UFO claim”.
Pflock said, “[T]he case for Roswell is a classic example of the triumph of quantity over quality. The advocates of the crashed-saucer tale … simply shovel everything that seems to support their view into the box marked ‘Evidence’ and say, ‘See? Look at all this stuff. We must be right.’ Never mind the contradictions. Never mind the lack of independent supporting fact. Never mind the blatant absurdities.” Korff suggests there are clear incentives for some people to promote the idea of aliens at Roswell, and that many researchers were not doing competent work: “[The] UFO field is comprised of people who are willing to take advantage of the gullibility of others, especially the paying public. Let’s not pull any punches here: The Roswell UFO myth has been very good business for UFO groups, publishers, for Hollywood, the town of Roswell, the media, and UFOlogy … [The] number of researchers who employ science and its disciplined methodology is appallingly small.”
B. D. Gildenberg wrote there were as many as 11 reported alien recovery sites and these recoveries bore only a marginal resemblance to the event as initially reported in 1947, or as recounted later by the initial witnesses. Some of these new accounts could have been confused accounts of the several known recoveries of injured and dead servicemen from four military plane crashes that occurred in the area from 1948 to 1950. Other accounts could have been based on memories of recoveries of test dummies, as suggested by the Air Force in their reports. Charles Ziegler argued that the Roswell story has all the hallmarks of a traditional folk narrative. He identified six distinct narratives, and a process of transmission via storytellers with a core story that was created from various witness accounts and was then shaped and molded by those who carry on the UFO community’s tradition. Other “witnesses” were then sought out to expand the core narrative, with those giving accounts not in line with the core beliefs being repudiated or simply omitted by the “gatekeepers”. Others then retold the narrative in its new form. This whole process would repeat over time.
A June 1997 CNN/Time poll revealed that the majority of people interviewed believed that aliens had indeed visited Earth, and that aliens had landed at Roswell, but that all the relevant information was being kept secret by the US government. According to anthropologists Susan Harding and Kathleen Stewart, the Roswell Story was a prime example of how a discourse moved from the fringes to the mainstream according to the prevailing zeitgeist: public preoccupation in the 1980s with “conspiracy, cover-up and repression” aligned well with the Roswell narratives as told in the “sensational books” which were being published. Additionally, skeptics and some social anthropologists saw the increasingly elaborate accounts of alien crash landings and government cover-ups as evidence of a myth being constructed.
Prominent skeptics Joe Nickell and co-author James McGaha identified a myth-making process, which they called the “Roswellian syndrome”. In this syndrome, a myth is proposed to have five distinct stages of development: incident, debunking, submergence, mythologizing, and reemergence and media bandwagon effect. The authors predicted that the Roswellian syndrome would “play out again and again”, in other UFO and conspiracy-theory stories (per Wikipedia).
First, a Story:
The aliens at the Roswell crash site were found with currency in their pockets… Starbucks.
Second, a Song:
U.F.O. is the debut album by psychedelic folk singer-songwriter Jim Sullivan, released in 1969. The album was unpopular upon release, but has gained a cult following in part due to the mysterious disappearance of Sullivan. While it is commonly known as U.F.O., a 1970 pressing on Century City Records titled the album as simply Jim Sullivan.
The album deals with supernatural and extraterrestrial themes, topics that Sullivan was obsessed with. “Rosey” was released as a single from the album in 1970 on Century City Records.
The album was released on a private label in 1969 and received little attention at the time. Actor Al Dobbs founded the Monnie record label to press Sullivan’s album. The artist enlisted session musician ensemble The Wrecking Crew to help fill out the songs, and it was recorded and released later that year. Sullivan would follow the album with a self-titled release in 1972 before disappearing.
The album is notable not only for its obscurity, but also for its lyrics that seem to predict Sullivan’s own disappearance.
After years of obscurity, Light in the Attic founder Matt Sullivan (no relation) discovered the record while surfing obscure music blogs. He was transfixed by the cover art and Sullivan’s voice and eventually got the album repressed on his label in 2010. Record club Vinyl Me, Please partnered with the label in 2019 and repressed the album on colored vinyl as part of their monthly subscription series. If the Evening Were Dawn, an album of compiled demo tracks from the recording sessions of U.F.O. was released on October 25, 2019 by Light in the Attic.
As the album was released on a private label, the album garnered little critical attention upon release. Due to the 2010 reissue and the record’s hazy history, modern reviews have reappraised the album. James Allen of AllMusic called the album a “lost classic” and praised the atmospheric and orchestral feel of Jimmy Bond’s string arrangements. The Independent wrote that the album has its moments of “hippy excess” but that much of the material is full with David Axelrod-esque string arrangements and features an essence similar to that of “Wichita Lineman” (per Wikipedia).
Here is Jim Sullivan’s title song from the U.F.O. album, set to different images of supposed “UFO” pictures by Drumgold23 (per YouTube.com). I hope you enjoy this!
Thought for the Day:
“We meet aliens every day who have something to give us. They come in the form of people with different opinions.” – William Shatner
Have a great day!
Dave & Colleen
© 2021 David J. Bilinsky and Colleen E. Bilinsky